Willoughby, Pamela R
Professor & Chair
Office: 13-10 Tory Bldg.
Office phone: 492-0138
Mailing address: 13-15 HM Tory
University of Alberta
Canada T6G 2H4
PhD, UCLA, 1985
MA, University of Alberta, 1976
BA(H), Trent University, 1974
Activities centre on the investigation of Middle and Later Stone Age (MSA and LSA) adaptations in southwestern Tanzania. The MSA is the period in which modern humans developed in Africa, populations who may also be the ancestors of all living human groups, according to the mitochondrial DNA or "out of Africa" model. Editor, Nyame Akuma: bulletin of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists, 1994-present. Other research areas include the experimental investigation of stone tool production and use.
Pam Holding an Acheulean pick, excavated in
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (August, 2012)
Pam with students from University of Dar es Salaam (August, 2012)
Anthr 219: World Prehistory
Anthr 486/593: Evolution & Social Life
Anthr 313: Middle and Upper Palaeolithic Prehistory
Anthr 391: Hominid Evolution
Lower Palaeolithic Prehistory
Development of Anthropological Archaeology
Selected Recent Publications:
Books and Monographs
The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa: A Comprehensive Guide. Lanham, Maryland: AltaMira Press, 2007, 439 pp.
Spheroids and battered stones in the African Early and Middle Stone Age. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology #17/BAR International Series #321. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1987, 253 pp.
Peer-reviewed articles and book chapters
“From the Middle to the Later Stone Age in Eastern Africa”. Refereed book chapter for Marta Camps and Parth R. Chauhan, editors, A Sourcebook of Paleolithic Transitions: Methods, Theories and Interpretations. New York: Springer, 42 ms. pp.; accepted August 15, 2008.
“Palaeoanthropology and the evolutionary place of humans in nature”. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 18(1): 60-90, 2005.
Pamela R. Willoughby and Charmaine Sipe, “Stone age prehistory of the Songwe River Valley, Lake Rukwa basin, Southwestern Tanzania”. African Archaeological Review 19(4): 203-221, 2002.
“Recognizing ethnic identity in the Upper Pleistocene: The case of the African Middle Stone Age/Middle Palaeolithic”. In John Terrell, editor, Archaeology, language and history: Essays on culture and ethnicity. Scientific Archaeology for the Third Millennium. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey, pp. 125-152, 2001.
“Middle and Later Stone Age technology from the Lake Rukwa Rift, Southwestern Tanzania”. South African Archaeological Bulletin 56 (174/175): 34-45, 2001.
“The origin and dispersal of modern humans”. In Ann Herring and Leslie Chan, editors, Strength in Diversity: a reader in physical anthropology. Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press, 1994, pp. 235-258.
“The Middle Stone Age in East Africa and modern human origins”. The African Archaeological Review 11: 3-20, 1993.
“Earlier Stone Age archaeology and African Studies: a move towards reconciliation@. Canadian Journal of African Studies 25(1): 70-88, 1991.
« Contribution à l'étude des spheroides et des bolos de quelques sites paléolithiques d'Afrique ». L'Anthropologie 93(4): 1-17, 1989.
“Spheroids and battered stones in the African Early and Middle Stone Age”. World Archaeology 17(1): 44-60, 1985.
Peer-reviewed articles completed but not yet published
Book chapter for MEAS 200 textbook. “The Earliest societies in Africa and the Middle East”, 3136 words; submitted July 15, 2008.
“What it means to be modern in the Middle Palaeolithic: Neanderthals, Middle Stone Age Africans and the People without Culture”, to be revised and resubmitted.
Editor-reviewed articles and book chapters
Three encyclopaedia entries: “Africa – Homo ergaster (1000 words), “Homo heidelbergensis” (750 words) and “sidebar on the relation of Homo sapiens to the Neanderthals” (150 words). In Encyclopedia of World History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, submitted July 20, 2008..
Three encyclopaedia entries: “The multiregional versus the out of Africa model” (1702 words), “Homo sapiens in Africa” (1082 words) and “Diets of our Miocene and early Pliocene ancestors” (1078 words). In Encyclopedia of World History: Africa. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO; accepted May 15, 2008.
Encyclopaedia entry: “The First Humans”. In The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The World’s Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures. Lane Cove, Australia: Global Book Publishing Pty. Ltd., pp. 62-67, 2007.
Encyclopaedia entry: “Earliest Modern Humans”. In The World Encyclepedia of Archaeology: World’s Most Significant Sites and Cultural Treasures. Lane Cove, Australia: Global Book Publishing Pty. Ltd., pp. 68-75, 2007.
“Notice of accusation of plagiarism against Julius Tombo Kodalo”. Nyame Akuma 61: 2-3, 2004.
“Middle and Later Stone Age prehistory of the Lake Rukwa Rift Valley, Southwestern Tanzania”. The Digging Stick (Newsletter of the South African Archaeological Association) 18(3): 13-14, December 2001.
“Hiring practices in archaeology: a Lingua Franca study”. Bulletin of the Society of American Archaeology 17(5): 11-12, November 1999.
“An archaeological survey of the Songwe River, Lake Rukwa Basin, Southwestern Tanzania”. Nyame Akuma 37: 28-35, 1992.
“Prehistoric archaeology in southwestern Tanzania”. Canadian Association of African Studies Newsletter, autumn 1991, pp. 3-8.
“Stone age archaeology in Mbeya and Rukwa Regions, Southwestern Tanzania”. Nyame Akuma 34: 30-37, December 1990.
Refereed conference proceedings
“Tempo and mode in the Palaeolithic: How to understand the origins of culture”. In J. Wilkins and K. Anderson, editors, Tools of the Trade: Methods, Techniques, and Innovative Approaches in Archaeology. Proceedings of the 38th annual Chacmool Conference (2005). Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 22 ms. pp., final revised version accepted December 12, 2007.
“Mitochondrial Eve and the African Middle Stone Age: Gender and race in the study of ‘modern’ human origins”. Qu(e)erying Archaeology: Proceedings of the 37th annual Chacmool Archaeology conference (2004). Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 22 ms pp., accepted October 18, 2005; final revised version submitted November 8, 2005.
“How much of early human evolution was a response to catastrophe?” Apocalypse Then: Proceedings of the 35th annual Chacmool (2002). Calgary: University of Calgary Press. Accepted April 30, 2004, 24 ms. pp.
“Out of Africa 2: the first migration of modern humans”. In C. Allum, J. Kahn, C. Cluney and M. Peuramaki-Brown, editors, Ancient Travellers: Proceedings of the 27 annual Chacmool conference (1994). Calgary: The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, 2002, pp. 100-110.
“Archaeologists, palaeoanthropologists and the people without culture”. In M. Boyd, J. C. Erwin and M. Hendrikson, editors, The Entangled Past: Integrating History and archaeology. Proceedings of the 30th annual Chacmool conference. Calgary: Chacmool Archaeological Association, 2000, pp. 281-291.
“Middle Stone Age technology and adaptation in southwestern Tanzania”. In G. Pwiti and R. Soper, editors, Aspects of African Archaeology: papers from the 10th congress of the Pan African Association for Prehistory and Related Studies. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications, 1996, pp. 171-190.
“The Middle Stone Age in Southwestern Tanzania”. In C. C. Magori, C. B. Saanane and F. Schrenk, editors, Four million years of hominid evolution in Africa: papers in honour of Dr. Mary Leakey=s outstanding contribution in palaeoanthropology. Kaupia/Darmstäder Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte 6: 57-69, 1996.
“The meaning of the Acheulean-Middle Stone Age transition in Africa”. In D. A. Meyer, P. C. Dawson and D. T. Hanna, editors, Debating Complexity: Proceedings of the 26th annual Chacmool conference (1993). Calgary: Chacmool Archaeological Association, 1996, pp. 202-211.
“Culture, environment and the emergence of Homo sapiens in East Africa”. In R. W. Jamieson, S. Abonyi and N. A. Mirau, editors, Culture and Environment: a fragile coexistence: Proceedings of the 24th annual Chacmool conference (1991). Calgary: Department of Archaeology, 1993, pp. 135-143.
“Human origins and the sexual division of labour: an archaeological perspective”. In D. Walde and N. Willows, editors, The Archaeology of Gender: Proceedings of the 22nd annual Chacmool Conference (1989). Calgary: Department of Archaeology, 1991, pp. 284-291.
Refereed conference proceedings completed but not yet published
“Middle and Later Stone Age technology in southwestern Tanzania”. Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the PanAfrican Archaeological Association for Prehistory and Related Studies, Gaborone, Botswana, 2005; 24 ms. pp., submitted October 18, 2005.
Refereed Published Abstracts
“Investigating the origins of modern human behaviour in southwestern Tanzania: a Middle or a Later Stone Age event?” Journal of Human Evolution 38(3): A34-A35, March 2000. Refereed abstract of presentation for the annual Paleoanthropology society meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 2000.
Katie Biittner, Pastory M. Bushozi and Pamela R. Willoughby, “The Middle and Later Stone Age of the Iringa Region, southern Tanzania: An Introduction”. Nyame Akuma 68: 62-73, December 2007.